Pharmaceutical analysis is a branch of practical chemistry that involves a series of process for identification, determination, quantification and purification of a substance, separation of the components of a solution or mixture, or determination of structure of chemical compounds.The substance may be a single compound or a mixture of compounds and it may be in any of the dosage form.
There are main two types of chemical analysis.
- Qualitative (identification)
- Quantitative (estimation)
Qualitative analysis is performed to establish composition of natural/synthetic substances. These tests are performed to indicate whether the substance or compound is present in the sample or not. Various qualitative tests are detection of evolved gas, formation of precipitates, limit tests, colour change reactions, melting point and boiling point test etc.
Quantitative analytical techniques are mainly used to quantify any compound or substance in the sample. These techniques are based in (a) the quantitative performance of suitable chemical reaction and either measuring the amount of reagent added to complete the reaction or measuring the amount of reaction product obtained, (b) the charatristic movement of a substance through a defined medium under controlled conditions, (c) electrical measurement, (d) measurement of some spectroscopic properties of the compound.
- To explore the knowledge in modern analytical instrumental techniques i.e., both spectroscopy and chromatography.
- To assess the process for identification, determination, quantification and purification of a substance and separation of the components of a solution or mixture.
- Analyze the drug structure, identification, purity determination, and quantification of the drug substance.
- Manufacturing industries require both qualitative and quantitative analysis to ensure that their raw materials meet certain specifications, and to check the quality of final product. Raw materials are to be checked to ensure that the essential components are present within the predetermined range of composition and there are not any unusual substances present which might upset the manufacturing process or it may appear as a harmful impurity in the final product.
- In the development of new products which contains mixtures other then the pure material, it is necessary to ascertain composition of mixture which shows the optimum characteristics for which the material has been developed.
- Geographical surveys require analysis to determine the composition of soil sample and numerous rock samples collected from the field.
- Most of the industrial processes give rise to pollutants which may cause health related problems. So quantitative analysis of air, water and soil sample should be carried out to determine the level of pollution and to establish the safe limits for pollutants.